2 edition of Hormonal regulation of seizure activity in the adult rat brain found in the catalog.
Hormonal regulation of seizure activity in the adult rat brain
Heather Elizabeth Edwards
Written in English
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||241|
Although there are numerous functional and structural sex differences in the adult brain, these are imposed on an essentially feminine or bipotential brain by testicular hormones during a critical phase of perinatal development in the rat. Indirectly, our diary data also suggest an important role of early stress mediators, like corticotrophin-releasing hormone, in stress-precipitation of seizures. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone production is not limited to the hypothalamus, but also occurs at several extrahypothalamic brain sites, including limbic and cortical regions (Nemeroff.
What are hormones? Hormones are chemical substances formed in organs and glands that travel through the body via the bloodstream. They control and coordinate many body functions such as muscle growth, heart rate, hunger and menstrual cycle. Steroid hormones include the three major sex hormone groups: estrogens, androgens, and progestogens. All three are present in both men and women, but in. The way the brain responds to hormones indicates that the brain is very malleable and capable of responding to environmental signals. The brain contains receptors for thyroid hormones (those produced by the thyroid) and the six classes of steroid hormones, which are synthesized from cholesterol — androgens, estrogens, progestins.
Seizure types are organized by whether the source of the seizure is localized (focal seizures) or distributed (generalized seizures) within the brain. Generalized seizures are divided according to the effect on the body and include tonic-clonic (grand mal), absence (petit mal), myoclonic, clonic, tonic, and atonic seizures. Some seizures such as epileptic spasms are of an unknown type. Seizures of all types are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Causes of seizures can include: Abnormal levels of sodium or glucose in the blood; Brain infection, including meningitis and encephalitis; Brain injury that occurs to the baby during labor or childbirth; Brain problems that occur before birth (congenital brain defects).
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Estrogenhydroxylase activity can be detected in both liver and brain in the fetal rat. By eight weeks of age, sexual dimorphism is apparent: male rats have higher specific enzyme activities in both liver and brain than female rats.
Androgenic hormones play a crucial role in the expression of enzyme activity in the adult animal. lepsy. This study used the kindled rat model to test the hypoth- esis that limbic seizures directly contribute to reproductive dys- function.
Methods: Kindling electrodes were implanted in the basolat- era1 amygdala in adult female rats. Females were kindled by either brief, daily, suprathreshold stimulations with Cited by: Differential regulation of seizure activity in the hippocampus of male and female rats Differential regulation of seizure activity in the hippocampus of male and female rats Standley, Cynthia A.; Mason, Brian A.; Cotton, David B.
in the rapidly changing fetal environment. Additionally, both in vitro and in vivo responses to cytokine growth factors may help to delineate. Gibbs RB (). Treatment with estrogen and progesterone affects relative levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein in different regions of the adult rat brain.
Brain Res 20– PubMed CrossRef Google ScholarCited by: 1. It is demonstrated that testosterone modulation of seizure susceptibility occurs through its conversion to neurosteroids with "anticonvulsant" and "proconvulsant" actions, and hence the net effect.
Antidepressant treatments regulate the matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (MMP-2/MMP-9) and the tissue inhibitors of the metalloproteinases (TIMPs ) in the adult rat hippocampus. Synapse 62(8) Vaidya VA*, Vadodaria KC, Jha S () Neurotransmitter regulation of adult neurogenesis: Putative therapeutic targets.
Seizures develop in the immature brain more readily than in the mature brain. Male children experience a higher incidence of epilepsy or unprovoked seizures than do female children. Sex‐specific differences in the development of seizure‐suppressing neuronal networks may account, at least in part, for this increased age‐ and sex‐related.
CORTICOSTEROIDS HAVE A WIDE range of regulatory effects on brain function. Besides the classically described negative feedback effects of corticosteroids on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis action (), these effects include regulation of the levels of a number of neurotransmitters and their receptors, and regulation of signal transduction pathways that impinge on neuronal excitability.
Animal studies reveal that effects of reproductive hormones on neuronal excitability, seizures, and seizure-induced damage are complex because of the multifaceted action of steroid hormones, which induce genomic effects involving modulation of multiple genes by their up- or down-regulation and rapid non-genomic effects by activation of membrane orphan G-protein coupled receptors, specific.
Complications that may result from seizure activity are: injury due to falling from cage shelves or ladders, or airway occlusion and aspiration. Figures Case Histories of Seizure Activity.
Fig 1: Seizures of idiopathic or unknown origin in male rat (Motely). Fig 4:Refer to the case history found in figure 4. After puberty there are many more hormones in the body. Hormones have a direct effect on the cells of the brain. Continued. Does that mean that a woman's seizures might go away when she reaches.
regulation, as well as key developmental actions. These mechanisms include variations in thyroid hormone trans-porter expression, local ligand activation and inactivation, relative expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) iso-forms, and the activity of receptor corepressors and coactiva-tors(28).Inmosttissues,thereisacombinationofthesemech.
Syt4 was transiently induced in several structures of the adult rat brain following seizure activity with peak inductions between 4 and 8 h and overal return to control values by 30 h. No induction was observed following seizure activity in 7-day-old animals. Thyroid hormones act in the brain where they play an essential role in fetal and post-natal brain development as well as the maintenance of adult brain function.
The importance of THs in the central nervous system (CNS) function is well confirmed in both neonatal and adult hypothyroidism [reviewed in  ].
Functional brain scans also suggest that teenagers and adults process reward stimuli differently; the adolescents are hypersensitive to the value of novel experiences.
Hormonal changes are at work, too. The adolescent brain pours out adrenal stress hormones, sex hormones, and growth hormone, which in turn influence brain development.
Exercise and the brain: angiogenesis in the adult rat cerebellum after vigorous physical activity and motor skill learning.
Regulation of BDNF and trkB mRNA in rat brain by chronic electroconvulsive seizure and antidepressant drug treatments. Steroid hormones such as estrogen influence brain aging, particularly in post-menopausal women.
Adult brain neurogenesis and psychiatry: a novel theory of depression seasonal regulation of adult neurogenesis depends on testosterone levels Thyroid hormone and development of the rat. Neurosteroids, which are derived from adrenal or gonadal steroid hormones or synthesized de novo from cholesterol in the brain, regulate neuronal excitability.
Neurosteroids suppress seizures, and this action is particularly important in women with epilepsy, who may experience seizure exacerbation due to hormonal fluctuations associated with. Seizure activity within the hippocampal circuitry not only affects pre-existing structures, but also dramatically increases the number of newborn granule cells.
A retroviral strategy was used to label dividing cells and their progeny in the adult dentate gyrus and to analyze the impact of epileptic activity on adult-generated cells labeled before or after seizures. --Reinforcement and reward --The role of dopamine in motivation --Serotonin, food, and mood --Other motivated behaviors --Drinking --Temperature regulation Sex and the brain --Sex and gender --The genetics of sex --Sex chromosome abnormalities --Sexual development and differentiation --The hormonal control of sex --Principal male and.
The presence of new-onset seizures in an adult or the worsening of chronic seizures warrants T2-weighted or FLAIR imaging and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (to look for primary or metastatic tumors, infections, or inflammatory lesions). If available, echo-planar diffusion imaging should be used also (to look for acute infarcts).Circumventricular organs (CVOs) (circum-: around ; ventricular: of ventricle) are structures in the brain characterized by their extensive and highly permeable capillaries, unlike those in the rest of the brain where there exists a blood–brain barrier (BBB) at the capillary level.
Although the term "circumventricular organs" was originally proposed in by Austrian anatomist Helmut O. As stated earlier, not all seizures occur due to epilepsy. Due to this, neurologists segregated the occurrences into three categories: Epileptic Seizures: In this class, people with epilepsy show a malfunction of the brain that leads to frequent episodes of seizures.
The occurrence of such seizures is due to trauma, brain infection, brain injury, stroke, or a tumor.